It foregrounds analysis of one form of resistance to the New Order by examining one of the key groups which consistently challenged the New Order. Primary sources Material used in this thesis was sourced from collections held at the offices of Balairung and Himmah, the private collection of Dave McRae, and the collections of the National Library of Australia and the Menzies Library at the Australian National University. Robison suggests that it was the growth of capitalism in Indonesia from the late s onwards, rather than any other factors, that led to the particular form of the New Order state , PMP Pendidikan Moral Pancasila, Pancasila Moral Education, compulsory courses in the state ideology introduced in primary and secondary schools in Critical discourse analysts also need to consider questions of methodology. To help encourage the adoption of these values amongst the young generation, the New Order developed a number of policies and put in place various programs over the course of the s. Between and it played an important role in the development of a radical secular nationalist ideology Ingleson , 1- 4 and

The meaning potential of a word includes its dictionary or denotative meanings and its connotative meanings, that is, the meanings which are given to it in a particular social, cultural or political context Fairclough , The shortage of trained professionals at the beginning of independence, a situation which also faced the New Order, meant that educated individuals were highly valued Fischer , and This choice reflects the 3 The Pancasila courses were not a New Order initiative. The systematic organisation of content in discourse, drawing on and deriving from the prior classification of this material in an ideological system, leads to the systematic selection of linguistic categories and features in a text Kress b, Forum Demokrasi Democracy Forum, an organisation of dissident intellectuals formed in and headed by Abdurrahman Wahid. The study also contributes to the broader theoretical literature by providing a practical case study of the application of critical discourse analysis to the analysis of resistance in language.

This freedom in turn implies that social subjects have the ability to exercise power themselves see Hindess; Rouseand More practically, these programs aimed to mobilise the support of wider society for development. Rationality and forward planning are expressed through the constant repetition of vocabulary items such as dalam rangka in the framework oflandasan base, starting point and tahapan stage, phase.


Together with three pelaja state universities, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Institut Pertanian Bogor Bogor Agricultural Instituteand Universitas Airlangga in Suraybaya, as well as the oldest Islamic university, Universitas Islam Indonesia in Yogyakarta, these universities are the most highly sought after by prospective students.

Recognising the importance of having trained professionals, the New Order made a concerted effort to improve the quality of education at all levels. It also represented a site where students actively collaborated in the process of defining those identities, even as it limited the discursive and practical possibilities open to them.

Chapter five is a close analysis of a magazine aimed at students and published by the Department of Education and Culture during the s.

All analysts approach the process of analysis with particular socio-political stances and interpret data to some extent according to these biases. Second, rather than focusing on a sharp distinction between powerful and powerless individuals and institutions and on the negative, repressive exercise of power by the powerful, Foucault suggests instead that power is productive.

essay peran pelajar dan mahasiswa dalam aksi tritura

Thus, there may be a variety of words or phrases used to denote a particular concept. These texts are considered in their wider contexts, both their wider textual context as well as their broader social, cultural and political context.


Others have used presidential speeches as a means of analysing more global structures of New Order language peljar Matheson Hooker ; Eriyanto The amount of attention this receives is variable, however, ranging from a single line to a more substantial discussion and there is little attempt to analyse the relations between New Order language practices and practices of resistance.

Although the publications chosen for analysis in chapter six to some degree reflect this, it has not been possible to include publications from outside Java. Pelajaar, identity is not a static phenomenon, but one which is constantly changing.

essay peran pelajar dan mahasiswa dalam aksi tritura

Despite the growth of the past few decades, Indonesian university students remain an elite within their society. Guided Democracy the period of Indonesian politics between and when President Sukarno presided over a government based on the Constitution, which he reintroduced by presidential decree in The tritufa also explores some of the linguistic techniques employed in the student press.

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He was also pearn invaluable source of expertise on student activism and the politics of the New Order and his extensive comments on my drafts enabled me to push my ideas further. At the same time, the increasing restrictions placed on political participation by wider society brought about important shifts in state-society relations.


essay peran pelajar dan mahasiswa dalam aksi tritura

It does not deal with the early years of the New Order or with the post-Suharto era. Opposition to the New Order has also been approached from the perspective of literature and the performing arts see for example Hatley ; Foulcher ; Clark ; Errington ; Hill ; see also Matheson Hooker Sekar Rukun, for example, only specified that their members be above the age of Such power is dependent upon access to resources of power such as wealth, expertise, social status, and control of information Marshall The position of the analyst in critical discourse analysis is thus no more partial than that of the historian or the political scientist see also Toolan By the beginning ofhowever, the focus had shifted to political and economic issues Douglas; Mohammad and Kats The opportunities for patronage provided by the economic growth of the s, and the increasing influence of business and conglomerates as a result of the economic deregulation of the s were also significant.

The various properties that a text displays thus reflect particular ways of thinking and speaking. The largest protests were organised by university students.

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Tony Liddicoat provided guidance on the tfitura aspects of the thesis in the early stages of my candidature. This conflict mirrored the broader patterns of contestation between the state and wider society. In Speaking through the silence: These lessons were constructed within an organicist framework of harmony, consensus, self- sacrifice and collective over individual interests.

The discussion also shows how the key research questions both arise in response to the limitations of earlier investigations and are built on their findings. Thus, for Foucault, by producing ways of speaking about the world, discourse also provides a way of thinking about the world.